The Prehistory of Volusia County
by Dana Ste. Claire
FIGURE 2. Timucuan Indians used dugout canoes for transportation.

To John W. Griffin,
father of Volusia County archaeology,
teacher and friend.


FIGURE 3. Timucuan Indians defend their village against alligators.


Table of Contents

Introduction by Gary R. Libby ……………………………… 5
Preface by John W. Griffin ………………………………….. 7
True Natives ………………………………………………………. 9
The Earliest People ……………………………………………. 11
The Archaic Period ……………………………………………. 15
The Orange Period …………………………………………….. 17
The St. Johns Period …………………………………………… 19
Prehistoric Implements ……………………………………….. 26
The Future of the Past ………………………………………… 30
Key Archaeological Sites in Volusia County ………….. 32
Visiting Volusia County’s Prehistoric Past:
A Self- Guided Tour ……………………………………………. 33
Glossary …………………………………………………………….. 44
Chronology of Prehistoric Culture Periods in
Volusia County ……………………………………………………. 46
Suggested Reading ……………………………………………….. 47
Archaeological Organizations ………………………………… 48
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………. 49
Illustration Credits ………………………………………………… 50



In 1991, Volusia County Government passed landmark legislation creating a Historic Preservation Advisory Board with a broad range of new regulatory powers and responsibilities. This decision reflects a developing commitment on the part of local governments throughout Florida to help save and learn from the rich and important past of areas undergoing rapid development. Special thanks must be extended to the Volusia County Council: Chairperson Deanie Lowe, Grover Ashcraft, Phil Giorno, Big John, Bob Tuttle, Vicky Jackson and Clay Henderson for their important support of historic preservation and education. We hope that this enlightened attitude will ameliorate the impact of ever-increasing development in east central Florida and in the rich archaeological areas of Volusia County.


This publication is the end result of over three years of research and fieldwork by Dana Ste. Claire, Curator of Science and History, and many others who are deeply interested in interpreting the rich prehistory of Volusia County, especially that part involving our earliest natives, the tribes of American aborigines who populated this area before the arrival of Europeans.

It is our hope that this text will serve as an introduction to the exotic and fascinating prehistory of Volusia County’s magnificent archaeogical sites together with information notes on the particular virtues of each location.

This project and The Museum of Arts and Sciences’ increased interest in Florida history is the direct result of the leadership of a dedicated Board of Trustees:

Executive Committee: Stuart Sixma, President ; D. Glenn Vicent, Past President ; Mrs. J. Hayatt Brown, Vice President ; Dr. Roger Lewis, Vice President ; Mrs. Charles Williams, Vice President ; Mrs. David Slick, Corporate Recording Secretary ; Mrs. Bill Gomon, Treasurer ; David Sigerson, Assistant Treasurer.

Board of Trustees: Mrs. Dennis Acquaro, Mrs. Donald Bradley, Lonnie Brown, Mrs. Linda Carley, Marc Davidson, Mrs. Anthony DiPardo, A. Brooks Harlow, Jr., Mayor Lawrence Kelly, Mrs. Brian Lansberry, Mrs. Carl W. Lentz, Ms. Jamie Moore, Dr. John Morris, Joe Petrock, Preston Root, David Sacks, William Sager, Walter W. Snell, Sr., Jeff Weber, and the diligent efforts of a great staff including the Curator of Exhibitions and Collections, David Swoyer, and the Curator of Education, Trish Thompson. While this project has been a total staff effort, including hours of work by both Melissa Andrulevich and Annie Matlow, final and special recognition must be abiding professional and personal commitment to the important past of Florida and Volusia County which is the real subject of this quintessential handbook. Gary Russell Libby, Director, Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach, Florida, September 1992.



Copyright 1992
by The Museum of Arts and Sciences
Daytona Beach, Florida 32114
All rights reserved
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 92-061913
ISBN Number: 0-933053-05-3
First Edition

Text by Dana Ste. Claire
Editor-in-Chief: Gary R. Libby
Associate Editor: Annie Matlow
Book Design by Melissa Andrulevich
Coodinator of Information and Communication: Annie Matlow
Printing by Hall Publishing Company



A Self Guided Tour

fig33Because of their remoteness, many of Volusia County’s prehistoric sites are difficult to see. However, some of the best examples of the county’s prehistoric past can be visited with little effort because of their easy accessibility. The following self­guided tour allows explorers to experience firsthand the rich prehistoric resources of the county. Beginning with the site of Nocoroco at Tomoka State Park in the northeast region of the county, the tour examines important sites along the coast, crosses inland to Lake Ashby and finally explores the St. Johns River basin.

Note: These sites are protected by federal, state, county and city regulations and ordinances. As such, it is unlawful to disturb or remove artifacts from any archaeological site located on public lands.


Tomoka State Park 2009 North Beach Street Ormond Beach
Take S. R. 40 (Granada Boulevard) to Beach Street, travel north to Tomoka State Park entrance, follow park road to northern end of the peninsula; look for National Register of Historic Places sign for interpretation. Park admission fee.

Remnants of St. Johns period habitation can be found throughout the northern end of the Tomoka State Park peninsula, especially along the shorelines. Here, portions of once extensive oyster middens remain as evidence of prehistoric activity at this locale, a strategic point of land which is surrounded by rich lagoons and protected from hurricanes by an eastern barrier island.

A late St. Johns period village, named Nocoroco, once existed along the western shores of the peninsula. This Timucuan Indian town was documented by Spanish explorer Alvaro Mexia in 1605. Because it dates to such a late period, it is possible that Nocoroco was one of the last Timucuan strongholds in northeast Florida.

Although currently not accessible to the public, the site of Tomoka Stone exists to the southeast of Nocoroco. This Late Archaic site is characterized by fused, stone­like masses of coquina shell, Orange fiber­tempered pottery, fig34shark’s teeth, and animal bone, hence the name Tomoka Stone. The lower levels of this site have been inundated or drowned by a rising sea level, thus remarkably preserving prehistoric materials in the coquina midden. Animal and plant remains recovered from Tomoka Stone indicate that prehistoric peoples were living at this site year­round.

To the west, the Strickland Mound complex occurs. A series of early coquina middens and mounded burials, the group of sites remains as one of the most interesting prehistoric complexes in Florida. Information from these sites indicates that the Tomoka peninsula was inhabited early on by Middle Archaic peoples.

Tomoka State Park contains some of the most important archaeological sites in Volusia County. Through the efforts of the Department of Natural Resources, these sites are protected and, in the near future, will be interpreted for the public to enjoy.



On Mound Avenue near the intersection with Beach Street.
In the city of Ormond Beach, take S. R. 40 (Granada Boulevard) to Beach Street, travel south five blocks to Mound Avenue. City park, no admission fee.

The Ormond Mound has been preserved as one of the finest and most intact burial mounds in eastern Florida, because of the efforts of the community who worked to save this site in 1982. It is estimated that over 100 individual burials remain in the mound based on salvage excavations that were conducted in that year. Most of these remains were laid to rest during the late St. Johns period or after A.D. 800. A charnel house, a structure used to store bodies prior to burial, was associated with the Ormond Mound. Charnel houses were used by St. Johns people to prepare the corpses of mostly high­ranking and important people for the afterlife. The dead were laid out on wooden racks and allowed to decompose. A charnel house attendant, usually a high priest, would carefully remove the flesh from the bones as they decayed. After the bodies dried away, the charnel house priest would end up with individual sets of cleaned bones. Each disarticulated set of bones was bundled up and buried in mounds during special ceremonies. This method accounts for the many skeletons found in burial mounds.



On Peninsula Drive in the city of Ponce Inlet.

From U.S. 1 (South Ridgewood Avenue) in the city of Port Orange take Dunlawton Avenue (SR 421) east over the intracoastal waterway to AlA (Atlantic Avenue); south on AIA 2.5 miles to Old Carriage Road in the city of Ponce Inlet; Old Carriage Road to Peninsula Drive; left (south) on Peninsula for .2 miles, look for mound on left (east). Parking area in front of site. State historic site. No admission fee

This well hidden shell mound is one of the largest in the nation, once measuring over 50 feet. From its peak, one can see the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the extensive estuaries which provided food for the site’s prehistoric inhabitants to the west. It is composed mainly of oyster which was collected from rich beds in the surrounding lagoons.

Archaeological investigations at Green Mound indicate that the site was constructed and used during the late St. Johns period, or after A.D. 800. These excavations revealed the presence of layer after layer of living floors made of clay, sand and ash. Fire pits, post holes and accumulated debris suggest that structures were once present, as well.



Located in the Spruce Creek State Park, operated by the Department of Natural Resources. The park is not open at present, but development of the park will include access to and interpretation of the mound.

fig35One of the most impressive prehistoric earthen works in Florida, the Spruce Creek Mound is situated on the banks of the meandering blackwater stream from which it gets its name. Positioned on an enormous bluff overlooking the creek, the site was constructed by prehistoric peoples who excavated earth from around the base of the mound, carried it to the top and deposited it. The periodic cappings of the mound with soil may have accompanied the ceremonial burial of a chief or high priest and relatives. This idea is supported by the presence of human skeletons and status artifacts which have been recovered from the mound.

Judging from the size of the site and the borrow pits around it, a tremendous amount of time and manpower went into the construction of the Spruce Creek Mound. The huge earthen mound with its long ramp on the north side and causeway leading from the banks of the creek served as a ceremonial, social, and political center for the hundreds of late St. Johns people that inhabited the lower Spruce Creek basin. The site was being used when Europeans arrived in the early 1500s. Prehistoric populations lived here because of the abundant and stable supply of food, mostly oysters, clams and saltwater fish. Sprawling shellfish middens, the discarded remains of ancient meals, line the basin for miles.

Today, the famous mound remains preserved, although rumors of buried pirate treasure and Indian gold and silver have led to site looting for nearly a century. Now gone, these materials could have told the real story of the Spruce Creek Mound.


Located at the Old Fort Park on North Riverside Drive,
in the city of New Smyma Beach.

From U.S. 1 (Dixie Freeway) in the city of New Smyrna Beach; take Canal Street through downtown New Smyrna Beach (traveling east) to Riverside Drive; left (north) on Riverside Drive one block to Old Fort Park between Julia and Washington Streets.

While this site is mostly known for its “old fort” ruins, a misnomer for the massive, intact coquina stone foundations of an early 19th century structure that existed on site, it is the enormous shell mound on which the foundation rests that is of great antiquity. Recent excavations at the Old Fort Mound, the remnant of a much larger midden removed for road fill years ago, revealed deep deposits of shellfish, mostly oyster, with a tremendous amount of animal bone found throughout, indicating its use as a prehistoric “landfill” of sorts. Fish bone recovered from the site indicates that prehistoric people in this area were accomplished fisherfolk who caught a wide variety of marine fish. Pottery resulting from the excavations indicate that the site was first occupied around A. D. 500 and continued to be used well into the late St. Johns period, around A. D. 1500.


Located in the Canaveral National Seashore.

From the city of New Smyrna Beach, take the South Causeway Bridge (S.R. 44) east to AlA; AlA south to Canaveral National Seashore park; follow signs to Turtle Mound. Park admission fee.

Turtle Mound is the largest shell midden in the nation. It has been estimated that the two­acre site contains over 35,000 cubic yards of oyster shell, extends over 600 feet of the Indian River shoreline, and currently measures over 50 feet in height. In prehistoric times, it was at least 75 feet high. Visible for miles offshore, the mound has been used as a navigational landmark since the early days of Spanish exploration.

fig36In 1605, Alvaro Mexia visited the site and documented the Timucuan Indians of Surruque who launched their dugout canoes at the base of the mound. Over the years, the huge shell mound began to resemble the form of a turtle, hence the name.

The park offers a wonderful and educational boardwalk ascent to the top of Turtle Mound with interpretive signs along the way. At the peak of the mound, visitors can see the extensive estuaries which were used by the Timucuans during the late St. Johns period. The panoramic view of the Atlantic Ocean, Merritt Island, the Indian River, and Mosquito Lagoon is spectacular and one which was surely enjoyed by the prehistoric inhabitants of the area.


Located in the Canaveral National Seashore.

From Turtle Mound, follow main road south 3.5 miles to Castle Windy parking lot; walk .5 mile trail west to site on Mosquito Lagoon. Bring mosquito repellent during warm weather months. Park admission fee.

While largeer than the Turtle Mound site to the north, Castle Windy is one of the more prominent shell middens in the Indian River area. It extends along the shores of the Mosquito Lagoon for some 300 feet.

Castle Windy is the first coastal midden in Florida for which we have radiocarbon dates. These indicate that the site developed around A.D. 1200 and continued to be used until A.D. 1500. The late St. Johns period peoples which inhabited Castle Windy were the same populations who lived at Turtle Mound.



Located in the Lake Ashby County Park.

Take S.R. 415 to Lake Ashby Road; follow Lake Ashby Road and turn onto Boy Scout Camp Road, travel approximately 1 mile to Lake Ashby Park entrance on right (south). Park in lot and follow trail to site.

The Lake Ashby site is a freshwater snail midden located on an inland lake between New Smyrna Beach on the coast and Enterprise on the St. Johns River. While there are undoubtedly other inland lake sites in Volusia County, the Lake Ashby midden is only one of a few known for the area.

The center of the midden has been destroyed by a dirt road which runs the length of the site, but intact portions of the shell mound remain to the north and south. The road cut allows visitors to see a profile of the freshwater shell midden and the site’s great density of snail refuse.

Excavations of the site indicate that the midden was created during the prehistoric peoples used the area prior to this cultural period, although artifacts have yet to be produced which substantiate this.

It is not clear how inland lake sites like the Lake Ashby midden fit into the prehistoric settlement patterns for Volusia County during the St. Johns period. It is possible that Lake Ashby was inhabited during certain times of the year by groups who made seasonal rounds to and from the coasts to more effectively utilize food resources in both regions. However, the Lake Ashby environment was rich enough in food resources, including snails, mussels, fish, game and plants, to support a large group of people throughout the year. These lake dwellers may have existed independently but within the same networks of groups which lived in permanent villages on the coast or river. It is also possible that population pressure along the St Johns River caused groups to migrate out of the basin area and exploit familiar freshwater environments.



Located in the Hontoon Island State Park on the St. Johns River.
From S.R. 44 west of Deland, take Old New York Avenue 1.5 miles to Hontoon Road; south on Hontoon Road 2.5 miles to River Ridge Road; take River Ridge almost a mile to the Hontoon Island State Park parking area. Free ferry service to the island. Primary site is located at the end of a 1 .2 mile nature trail. Bring insect repellent during warm weather months.

fig37Freshwater shell middens can be found throughout Hontoon Island along its shorelines. The best example of these is located on the west side of the island and can be reached by a long park trail.

Here, visitors will find a large shell mound, nearly 30 feet high and 200 feet in length. Excavations into the inundated portions of the site have produced a spectacular array of preserved cultural materials which date from the early St. Johns period about A.D. I to the late 1700’s. These items include the remains of 48 species of animals and 28 species of plants taken by prehistoric groups at Hontoon Island. In addition, the organic pear and shell matrix preserved numerous bone pins and awls, adzed wood, and a broken dugout canoe paddle.


Located in Blue Spring State Park on the St. Johns River.

From U.S. Highway 17­92 in the city of Orange City, turn onto West French Avenue and follow about 2 miles to Blue Spring State Park entrance. Park admission fee.

The Thursby Mound on Blue Spring has produced some of the most interesting archaeological materials in Volusia County. Of these, several toy­like pottery effigies of corncobs, squash, gourds, acorns, and animals fig38are most fascinating. The clay figures in the form of vegetables, as well as the presence of corncob­marked pottery, implies that St. Johns period peoples who lived near the Thursby site practiced horticulture, including the growing of maize and other domesticated plants.

As horticulture became more and more important to these prehistoric groups and greater numbers of people were supported and brought together by the stable food supplies, social and political systems became more complex. This is reflected in the specialized mound construction at the Thursby site. The mound is a fig39truncated cone about 12 feet high and 90 feet in diameter. Leading to the mound from the St. Johns River is a shell ramp. The ramp and other mound features suggest that late St. Johns groups at Thursby had contact with the complex cultures of South Florida where these activities were more prevalent. The one time presence of gold and silver artifacts in the mound suggests trade with the Calusa Indians of southwest Florida.

In 1955, a dragline operator pulled a large carved owl from the St. Johns River near the Thursby Mound. The figure, made from a whole log by burning and scraping, most likely represents a ceremonial scarecrow of some sort rather than a clan totem. Since the owl was viewed by Florida natives as a symbol of evil, it may have been placed next to the mound to ward off unauthorized visitors. The figure is currently housed at the Fort Caroline National Park near Jacksonville.




Archaeology The scientific study of past human behavior and associated artifacts. A field of anthropology.

Artifact Any object manufactured or modified by humans, such as a stone spearpoint or a sharpened bone.

Atlatl A device for throwing a spear or dart that consists of a handle with a projection at the rear end to hold the shaft in place until released.



Basin The entire area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.

Celt A prehistoric stone or shell implement shaped like an axe head.

Chert A flint­like rock which was shaped or flaked into useable tools by prehistoric stoneworkers.

Culture A population of people who share the same customs, beliefs, social organization, and material traits.

Custom A long­established practice common to many of a particular culture, such as the wearing of dyed fish­bladder earrings.

fig42 Domesticate To tame or cultivate a wild animal or plant for human benefit.

Effigy An image or representation of a person or thing.

Excavation The scientific process of digging away earth or other materials to reveal evidences of past cultures such as artifacts or house floors.

Horticulture The practice of growing plants for food.

Implement A tool or utensil.

Indian A name given to the indigenous people of the Americas by Columbus who believed that the lands he discovered were part of the Indies, a group of islands near Asia.

Midden A deposit of shell, debris, or other by­products of human activity.

Palisade Line A long fence of sharpened, upright timbers or stakes for fortification around a group of houses.

Paleontology The scientific study of past environments, inlcuding plants and animals, as known from fossil remains. An archaeologist and a paleontologist have very different research interests.

Pleistocene An earlier epoch of time, approximately 3 million to 10,000 years ago, during which Florida was populated by a now extinct array of mammals including mastodon, mammoth, horse, and giant ground sloths.

Prehistory In the Americas, that period of time which preceeds European contact in the late 15th century.

Preservation The protection and maintenance of archaeological and historical sites.

Sherd A fragment of pottery.

Soapstone A soft rock called steatite which was used by prehistoric peoples to make vessels and other items.

Tempering Material added to potter’s clay such as fiber or sand to strengthen the ceramic.

Totem An object such as a carved animal or plant which serves as the emblem of a family or clan and often as a reminder or its ancestry.

Truncated Flat­topped, having the apex cut off into a planed surface.



Suggested Reading

Bullen, Ripley P., Adelaide K. Bullen, and W.J. Bryant
1967 Archaeological Investigations at the Ross Hammock Site. William L. Bryant
Foundation, American Studies Report 7.

Bullen, Riley P. and 0. Jahn
1978 The Tick Island Site, St. Johns River, Florida. Florida Anthropological Society
Publication No. 10.

Bullen, Ripley P. and Frederick W. Sleight
1959 Archaeological Investigations of the Castle Windy Midden, Florida. William
L. Bryant Foundation, American Studies Report 1.

1960 Archaeological Investigations of Green Mound, Florida. William L. Bryant
Foundation, American Studies Report 2.

Bushnell, Francis F.
1960 The Harris Creek Site, Tick Island, Volusia County. Florida Anthropologist
13, pp. 25­31.

Deagan, Kathleen A.
1978 Cultures in Transition: Fusion and Assimilation among the Eastern Timucua.
In, Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of Florida and Southeastern Georgia during the
Historic Period. Ripley P. Bullen. Monographs in Anthropology and History 1.
University Presses of Florida.

Florida Anthropological Society Publications Number 13.
1987 Investigations at Hontoon Island, An Archaeological Wetsite in Volusia
County, Florida; various authors.

Griffin, John W.
1948 Green Mound: A Chronological Yardstick. The Florida Naturalist 22,
pp 1­8.

1948 Toward Chronology in Coastal Volusia County.
Florida Anthropologist 1, pp. 49­55.

Griffin, John W. and Hale G. Smith
1949 Nocoroco: A Timucua Village of 1650 now in Tomoka State Park. Florida
Historical Quarterly 27, pp. 340­361.

1954 The Cotton Site: An Archaeological Site of Early Ceramic Times in Volusia
County, Florida. Florida State University Studies 16, pp. 27­60.

Jennings, Jesse D., Gordon R. Willey and Marshall T. Newman
1957 The Ormond Beach Mound, East Central Florida. Bureau of American
Ethnology Bulletin 164, pp. 1­28.

Milanich, Jerald T. and Charles H. Fairbanks
1980 Florida Archaeology. Academic Press, New York.

Piatek, Bruce J.
1992 The Tomoka Point Archaeological Survey. Florida Anthropologist 45(3).

Russo, Michael
1986 The Coevolution of Environment and Human Exploitation of Faunal Resources
in the Upper St. Johns River Basin. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Russo, Michael and Dana Ste. Claire
1992 Tomoka Stone: Archaic Period Coastal Settlement in East Florida. Florida
Anthropologist 45(3).
Sears, William H.
1960 The Bluffton Burial Mound. Florida Anthropologist 13, pp 55­60.

Ste. Claire, Dana
1990 The Archaic in East Florida: Archaeological Evidence for Early Coastal
Adaptations. Florida Anthropologist 43, pp 189­197.

Stewart, Marilyn C.
1979 Subsistence in the St. Johns Region: The Alderman Site. Florida Anthropologist 32, pp. 52

Wyman, Jeffries 1875 Freshwater Shell Mounds of the St.Johns River, Florida. Peabody Academy of Science, Memoir 4


Archaeological Organizations

For membership informatian, contact:
Florida Anthropological Society
Post Office Box 5142
Gainesville, Florida 32602
Volusia Anthropological Society
Post Office Box 1881
Ormond Beach, Florida 32174


The author thanks Gary R. Libby, Director, Museum of Arts and Sciences, for his direction and support of this project, and Annie Matlow, Communications Coordinator, and Melissa Andrulevich, Media Specialist, Museum of Arts and Sciences, for the production of this publication. Thanks is also extended to the following people for reviewing earlier drafts of this manu­ script: John W. Griffin, Archaeologist, St. Augustine; Robert J. Austin, Janus Archaeological Research, St. Petersburg; Bruce J. Piatek, Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board; Tom Scofield, Volusia County Department of Growth Management; Dorothy Moore, New Smyrna Beach; George Wolsfelt, New Smyrna Beach; Saneh Soucy, Port Orange. Finally, the author thanks the Florida Division of Historical Resources and the Historic Preservation Advisory Council for making this project possible.

This publication has been financed, in part, with historic preservation grant assistance provided by the Bureau of Historic Preservation, Florida Department of State, assisted by the Historic Preservation Advisory Council. However, the contents and opinions of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Florida Department of State, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute an endorsement or recommendation by the Florida Department of State.

Illustration Credits

FIGURE I. Cover. from,’The Youth At Their Exercises,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 2. “Industry of the Floridians in Depositing their Crops in the Public Granary,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 3. “Killing Crocodiles,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564

FIGURE 4. From, “Protecting the Past for the Future,” brochure produced by the Timesifters Archaeology Society, Sarasota, Florida. FIGURE 5. Volusia County Department of Growth Management.

FIGURE 6. From, ‘The Natives of Florida Worship the Column Erected by the Commander of His First Voyage,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 7. Speculative drawing of Paleo­Indian hunters attacking a mammoth, in “300 by 35 Mi: Corridor to the Past,” produced by the Florida Department of Transportation and the Florida Division of Historical Resources, 1986.

FIGURE 8. Artist, Evelyn Raiford. From, “Before the White Man: The Prehistory of St. Johns County, Florida,” published by the Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, 1985. Author, James M. Smith.

FIGURE 9. From, “Before the White Man.”

FIGURE 10. From, “Before the White Man.”

FIGURE 11. “The Hunt,” by Frank H. Gilson. Cover of the Florida Anthropologist, Volume 36 (1­2), 1983.

FIGURE 12. From, Certain Sand Mounds of the St. John’s River, Florida, Part 1 by Clarence B. Moore, 1894. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10.

FIGURE 13. From “Corridor to the Past.”

FIGURE 14. Designed by D. Ste.Claire.

FIGURE 15. Miscellaneous.

FIGURE 16. From, “Before the White Man.”

FIGURE 17. “Construction of Fortified Towns Among the Floridians,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 18. Artist, Trish Thompson, Museum of Arts and Sciences.

FIGURE 19. Artist, Trish Thompson, Museum of Arts and Sciences.

FIGURE 20. From, Fresh­Water Shell Mounds of the St.Johns River, Florida by Jeffries Wyman, 1875. Peabody Academy of Science, Memoir 4.

FIGURE 21. “Mode of Drying Fish, Wild Animals, and Other Provisions,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 22. From, ‘The Chief Applied to by Women Whose Husbands Have Died in War or by Disease,” drawing by Jacques Le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 23. From, Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida by John M. Goggin, 1952. Yale University Publications in Anthropology 47.

FIGURE 24. “How They Boil Meat in Earthenware Pots,” drawing by John White, c. 1585.

FIGURE 25. From, Exploration of Ancient Key Dwellers’ Remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida, by Frank Hamilton Cushing, 1897. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.

FIGURE 26. Miscellaneous.

FIGURE 27. Adaptation of “Mode of Tilling and Planting,” drawing of Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564, by the Museum of Science & History, Jacksonville.

FIGURE 28. Miscellaneous.

FIGURE 29. From, “Before the White Man.”

FIGURE 30. Designed by Terri Newby and Lorie Mancuso.

FIGURE 31. Designed by D. Ste.Claire.

FIGURE 32. Map designed by Melissa Andrulevich.

FIGURE 33. From, “Order of March Observed by Outina on a Military Expedition,” drawing by Jacques le Moyne, c. 1564.

FIGURE 34. Miscellaneous.

FIGURE 35. “The Tomb of the Weroans,” drawing by John White, c. 1585.

FIGURE 36. Miscellaneous.

FIGURE 37. Cover, brochure for Hontoon Island State Park; Florida Department of
Natural Resources.

FIGURE 38. “Certain Sand Mounds of the St. John’s River, Florida.” C.B. Moore,1894.

FIGURE 39. C.B. Moore, 1894.

FIGURE 40. C.B. Moore, 1894.

FIGURE 41. From, “Before the White Man.”

FIGURE 42. Miscellaneous figure.


NOTE: For a complete copy of this book contact :

  • The Museum of Arts and Sciences
  • 1040 Museum Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114